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An illustration of a hawker of Bibles from 'London: a Pilgrimage' by Blanchard Jerrold and Gustave Doré, 1872. Henry Mayhew in 'London Labour and the London Poor' (1861) notes that 'Among the more ancient of trades ... carried on in England is that of the hawker or pedlar'. He goes on to describe how, from the year 1810 hawkers were required to pay £4 a year for a licence with an additional £4 'for every horse, ass, or mule, used in the business'. Many continued working without a licence, but the trade declined due to fraudulent practices and the development of alternative markets.
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