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Most of the blame for the Great Fire was put onto Catholics. London was a Protestant city and many people feared that Catholics in England would help foreign armies invade the country and force the population to convert to Catholicism. They saw the fire as a Catholic plot. Anti-Catholic books were written for many years, even though the fire was declared an accident in January 1667. This book, 'Pyrotechnica loyolana, ignatian fire-works; or, the fiery jesuits temper and behaviour', printed in 1667, claims to be written by a 'Catholick-Christian' and blames the fire on Jesuits (a Catholic religious order). The first illustration in the book shows the Pope fanning the flames of London with a pair of bellows, and various scenes of conspirators with fire balls, including Robert Hubert (the innocent Frenchman hung for starting the fire).
© Museum of London